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timolol (Betimol): Glaucoma Drug Side Effects, Uses & Dosage

What is timolol and how does it work (mechanism of action)?

Timolol GFS 0.25% and 0.5% are indicated for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

Timolol maleate is a beta1 and beta2 (nonselective) adrenergic receptor inhibitor that does not have significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity. Timolol GFS, when applied topically to the eye, has the action of reducing elevated, as well as normal, intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma.

Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous visual field loss and optic nerve damage. The precise mechanism of the ocular hypotensive action of Timolol GFS is not clearly established at this time.

Is timolol available as a generic drug?


Do I need a prescription for timolol?


What are the uses for timolol?

What are the side effects of timolol?

Minor side effects of timolol include:

Major side effects include:

What is the dosage for timolol?

The range of dosing for adults is 10 to 60 mg per day.

Which drugs or supplements interact with timolol?

  • The concurrent use of timolol and
    clonidine (Catapres),
    may cause rebound
    hypertension upon abrupt discontinuation of clonidine. It is
    advisable, therefore, to stop the beta adrenergic blocking drug by several days
    before gradually withdrawing clonidine.
  • Fenoldopam (Corlopam), which is used for
    the treatment of severe
    hypertension should not be taken together with timolol
    as the combination may increase the risk of
    hypotension due to additive effects
    of the two
    drugs in
    lowering blood pressure.
  • Close observation should be carried out when timolol is administered to
    patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs such as
    reserpine (Harmonyl)
    because of possible additive effects and the production of
    hypotension and/or a
    markedly slow heartbeat, which may produce
    syncope, or
    hypotension (dizziness upon standing).
  • Concurrent use of
    NSAIDs with timolol may
    cause the
    antihypertensive action of beta-blockers to be decreased. This occurs
    because prostaglandins are important in controlling blood pressure.

Is timolol safe to take if I’m pregnant or breastfeeding?

  • There are no adequate studies in pregnant women. Timolol should be
    used during
    pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential
  • Timolol has been detected in
    human milk and has a potential
    for adverse events in infants.

What else should I know about timolol?

What preparations of timolol are available?

Tablets: 5, 10, and 20 mg.

How should I keep timolol stored?

Timolol should be stored at room temperature, 15 C – 30 C (59 F – 86 F) and kept in a tightly sealed container protected from light

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