Myocardial Biopsy Introduction
A heart biopsy, also called myocardial biopsy or cardiac biopsy, is an invasive procedure to detect heart disease that involves using a bioptome (a small catheter with a grasping device on the end) to obtain a small piece of heart muscle tissue that is sent to a laboratory for analysis.
Why Do I Need a Myocardial Biopsy?
Your doctor uses myocardial biopsy to:
- Evaluate or confirm the presence of rejection after heart transplant.
- Diagnose myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or certain other cardiac disorders such as cardiomyopathy or cardiac amyloidosis.
How Should I Prepare for a Heart Biopsy?
To prepare yourself for a heart biopsy you should know these things:
- The procedure takes place in the hospital. Usually, you will come to the hospital the day of the test and it is performed as an outpatient procedure. In some cases, you may need to be admitted to the hospital the night before the procedure.
- You can wear whatever you like to the hospital, but it is a good idea to leave valuables, such as jewelry, at home. You will wear a hospital gown during the procedure.
- Your doctor or nurse will give you specific instructions about what you can and cannot eat or drink before the procedure. In general, food and fluids are restricted for 6 to 8 hours before the test.
- Ask your doctor what medications should be taken on the day of your heart biopsy. Be sure to tell your doctor if you are taking any nutrition supplements or herbal preparations, and tell your doctor which over-the-counter medications you are taking. Please bring a list of all of your medications and the current dosages with you.
- If you have diabetes, ask your doctor how to adjust your medications the day of your test.
- Tell your doctor and/or nurses if you are allergic to anything.
- Arrange for someone to drive you home after the test.
- If you normally wear dentures or a hearing device, plan to wear them during the procedure to help with communication. If you wear glasses, plan to bring them as well.
What Can I Expect During a Heart Biopsy?
- A health care provider will explain the heart biopsy to you, including the potential risks.
- After you change into a hospital gown, a nurse will start an intravenous (IV) line in your arm so that medications and fluids can be given during the procedure.
- You will lie on your back on a special table. If you look above, you will see a large camera and several TV monitors.
- A mild sedative medication will be given before the procedure to help you relax, but you will be awake during the procedure.
- The doctor will use a local anesthetic to numb the area of your neck. A plastic introducer sheath (a short, hollow tube through which the catheter is placed) is inserted through a small incision and into a blood vessel in the neck. A bioptome is inserted through the sheath and threaded to the right ventricle. X-rays, called fluoroscopy, are used to position the bioptome properly.
- The bioptome is used to obtain samples of the heart muscle. Each sample is about the size of the head (top) of a pin.
- When the samples have been collected, the catheter and sheath will be removed and firm pressure will be held over the area to stop bleeding.
- The procedure takes about 30 to 60 minutes. However, the preparation and recovery add several hours. You should be able to go home the same day of the procedure.
What Can I Expect After a Heart Biopsy?
After a heart biopsy, firm pressure will be held over the area where the catheter was inserted to stop the bleeding. You will be monitored for a few hours after the procedure.
Before you go home, a health care provider will tell you how to care for the wound site and when you can return to your regular activities.
A responsible adult must drive you home after the procedure. The medication given during the procedure makes it unsafe for you to drive or operate machinery.
When the results of the heart biopsy are available, your doctor will discuss them with you.
Please ask your doctor if you have any questions about heart biopsy.
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